Types of Government

Types of Government
A Government is an organized group of people who governs a state or country on certain principles. It is responsible for the social welfare, law and order, defense, and financial affairs of the country.

This post briefly describes the common types of governments that exist in the world.
  • Anarchy – A state of lawlessness and chaos often resultant often from the absence of any kind of Government.
  • Autocracy – A system where power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual, where the opinions of the masses id disregarded.
  • Communism – A type of Govt. where everything is owned and operated by the Govt in an ideal situation. The individual lacks the right to own anything and earns income based on their ability or merit.

    China, Soviet Union, Laos, Cuba, and Vietnam are the communism prevalent countries of the modern world.

  • Democracy – A system where power is in the hands of the masses. Here, people can choose their representatives to govern themselves. Abraham Lincoln's words "Government of the people, by the people, for the people" aptly describes how it works.
    • Cradle of democracy – Greece.
    • First democratic country in the world – Greece.
    • Home of Direct democracy – Switzerland.
    • Largest democratic country in the world – India.
    • Longest surviving democratic country in the world – Britain.
    • Land of Modern Democracy – Britain.
    • Bible of Modern Democracy – Britain.Social Contract (Roussaeu).
    • Position of India in the 2021 Democracy Index of The Economist Intelligence Unit – 53 (51 in 2020; out of 167 countries; Norway topped the list; was in 27th position in 2014).
  • Fascism – It is a government led by a dictator who has total control over the people by crushing the opposition through violence. Promotes and emphasizes ancestral & cultural values.

    The best-known examples of this found in History are Benito Mussolini of Italy and Adolf Hitler of Germany.

  • Federation – A self-governed political group under a central government characterized by the union of states, provinces, or political parties. Russia, Germany, Canada, and Switzerland are examples of the Federation.
  • Gynarchy – A form of government where a woman or a group of women rules the country.
  • Junta A military/coalition group that overhauls the current ruling government.
  • DictatorshipA type of government where power lies in the hands of an individual with absolute authority everywhere.
  • Monarchy – Here power is vested in a single individual, typically hereditary in nature like Kings & Queens (Queen Elizabeth II).
  • Oligarchy – Rule of the few. Here the power of the government is concentrated directly or indirectly in the hands of a few people or families. (Field Assistant, 2017)
  • Plutocracy – Rule of the rich and powerful families ie, the elites of the society who often act behind the scenes. Also known as the shadow government.
  • Republic – A government selected on the basis of the citizen's votes in public elections.
  • Technocracy – A government in the control of scientists & technical experts and they are selected on the basis of their knowledge/skill rather than wealth or power.
  • Theocracy – A government formed by a group of priests/individuals claiming divine powers, in the name of God or a particular religion. Iran is a country where theocracy exists in the modern world.
  • Totalitarianism – A system in which a single political party regulates total control over the country. It is centralized and dictatorial in hands of a single authority. North Korea can be termed as a totalitarian country.
  • Tyranny – Unrestricted exercise of power and authority by an individual or government over the country.