Tiger Reserves of India for PSC

Tiger Reserves of India

In India, the tiger reserves are protected under the "Project Tiger" which in turn is administered by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). At the time when the National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed on 4th September 2006, there were only 9 reserves now it has been increased to 53 spanning over 19 states. 

The main purpose of the tiger reserve is to preserve endangered Bengal tigers from extinction and to protect critical tiger habitat, as India is the home to 80% of the world's Bengal tiger population.

The tiger reserves are divided on the basis of the core/buffer strategy. 
  1. The core areas are areas that have the legal status of a sanctuary or a national park. 
  2. Buffer areas are the peripheral areas that are a mix of forest and non-forest land which can be managed as multi-purpose areas.


Basic Facts

  • Number of Tiger Reserves in India – 53.
  • Largest no. of Tigers are found in – Madhya Pradesh (526).
  • Largest Tiger Reserve in India – Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Telangana, 3,728 km2,).
  • Smallest Tiger Reserve in India – Bor (Maharashtra).
  • State with most no. of Tiger reserves in India – Madhya Pradesh (6).
    • Maharashtra also has 6 tiger reserves in India,
  • First Tiger Reserve in Kerala – Periyar Tiger Reserve.
  • 10th Tiger Reserve in India – Periyar, Kerala.
  •  36th Tiger Reserve in India – Parambikulam, Kerala.
  • National Animal of India – Tiger (Bengal Tiger).
    • Tiger was adopted as National animal in – April 1973.
  • Scientific name of Tiger – Panthera Tigris.
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed in – 4th September 2006. 
  • National Park which has the highest density of tigers in the world – Kaziranga National Park. 
  • Nandankanan Tiger Reserve (Odisha)is famous for white tigers.
  • Biosphere Tiger reserves – Manas (Assam), Similipal (Orissa) & Sunderbans (West Bengal).
  • Only tiger reserve which is also a World Heritage Site – Manas Tiger Reserve.
  • 53rd Tiger Reserve of India – Guru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay National Park) & Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary (Chhattisgarh).
  • International Tiger Day / Global Tiger Day – July 29.
    • International Tiger Day was observed for the first time in 2010 at the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia.
  • First Tiger Summit – St Petersburg, Russia (2010). 


Project Tiger

  • Tiger Reserves in India are governed by – Project Tiger.
  • Purpose – To preserve Bengal tigers from extinction.
  • Project Tiger was launched in April 1973.
    • (Under the tenure of Indira Gandhi) with 9 reserves.
  • Project Tiger was launched in – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.
  • Total area covered  –  71027.10 km².
  • Project Tiger is administered by – National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).


National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

  • Established in – December 2005.
  • Following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
  • It was given statutory status by the 2006 amendment of the Wildlife Protection Act (1972).
  • Chairman – Environment Minister.


Tiger Census in India

Tiger Census 2018
  • Conducted every 4 years under the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
  • The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010, 2014, and in 2018.
  • The process used to take the census of Tigers – Pugmark
  • As per the Tiger Census of 2018, India has now 2,967 tigers.
  • Best-managed tiger reserves – Pench Sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) & Periyar sanctuary (Kerala)
  • M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) software developed by NTCA in 2010.


Tiger translocation project

  • First successful Tiger relocation carried out in – Rajasthan (2008).
    • tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska tiger reserve.
  • First Inter-State Tiger relocation programme was carried out in –  Madhya Pradesh to Odisha
    • Status – failed.
  • NTCA has suspended the Tiger translocation project after this failure.


Global Tiger Recovery Programme 
  • Declared at the first tiger summit @ Russia. 
  • Aim – to reverse the rapid decline of tigers, and also aim to double their numbers by 2022.
  • 13 Tiger range countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand & Vietnam.

List of Tiger Reserves in India



StateTiger ReserveYear of Creation
Andhra PradeshNagarjunsagar-Srisailam 1982
Arunachal PradeshNamdapha
Pakhui
1982
1999
AssamKaziranga
Manas
Nameri
Orang
2008
1974
1999
2016
BiharValmiki National Park1989
ChhattisgarhAchanakmar
Indravati
Udanti & Sitanadi Tiger Reserve
Guru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay National Park)
& Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary
2008
1983
2008
2021
JharkhandPalamau 1974
KarnatakaBandipur
Nagarhole
Bhadra
Anshi Dandeli
1973
2008
1998
2008
KeralaPeriyar Tiger Reserve
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
1978
2008
Madhya PradeshBandhavgarh
Satpura
Kanha
Panna
Pench
Sanjay-Dubri
1993
1981
1973
1994
1992
2008
MaharashtraMelghat
Pench
Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project
Sahyadri
Nagzira-Navegaon
Bor
1973
1998
1995
2009
2013
2014
MizoramDampa 1994
OdishaSatkosia
Similipal
2008
1973
RajasthanMukundara Hills
Ranthambore
Sariska
Ramgarh Vishdhari
2013
1973
1978
2021
Tamil NaduAnamalai
Kalakkad Mundanthurai
Mudumalai
Sathyamangalam
Srivilliputhur - Megamalai
1976
1988
2008
2013
2021
TelanganaKawal
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam
2012
1982
Uttar PradeshDudhwa
Pilibhit
1987
2014
UttarakhandJim Corbett
Rajaji National Park
1936
2015
West BengalBuxa
Sunderbans
1982
1973


SideNotes:

  • First National Park – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand (1936)
  • Hailey National Park was renamed as Jim Corbett National Park. 
  • Another nation with Tiger as the National Animal – Bangladesh.
  • Kaziranga National Park was started in the year – 2006. 
  • National Park having world’s largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses – Kaziranga National Park.

Thanks for reading.

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