Tiger Reserves of India for PSC

Tiger Reserves of India

In India, the tiger reserves are protected under the "Project Tiger" which in turn is administered by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). 

At the time when the National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed on 4th September 2006, there were only 9 reserves now it has been increased to 55 spanning over 19 states. 

The main purpose of the tiger reserve is to preserve endangered Bengal tigers from extinction and to protect critical tiger habitat, as India is the home to 80% of the world's Bengal tiger population.

The tiger reserves are divided on the basis of the core/buffer strategy. 
  1. The core areas are areas that have the legal status of a sanctuary or a national park. 
  2. Buffer areas are the peripheral areas that are a mix of forest and non-forest land which can be managed as multi-purpose areas.


Basic Facts

  • Number of Tiger Reserves in India – 55.
  • Largest no. of Tigers are found in – Madhya Pradesh (785).
    • 2nd – Karnataka (563).
    • 3rd – Uttarakhand (560).
  • Largest Tiger Reserve in India – Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve (Telangana, 3,728 km2,).
  • Smallest Tiger Reserve in India – Bor (Maharashtra).
  • State with most no. of Tiger reserves in India – Madhya Pradesh (7).
    • Maharashtra  retains second place with 6 tiger reserves.
  • First Tiger Reserve in Kerala – Periyar Tiger Reserve.
  • 10th Tiger Reserve in India – Periyar, Kerala.
  • 36th Tiger Reserve in India – Parambikulam, Kerala.
  • National Animal of India – Tiger (Bengal Tiger).
    • Tiger was adopted as National animal in – April 1973.
  • Scientific name of Tiger – Panthera Tigris.
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed in – 4th September 2006. 
  • National Park which has the highest density of tigers in the world – Kaziranga National Park. 
  • Nandankanan Tiger Reserve (Odisha)is famous for white tigers.
  • Biosphere Tiger reserves – Manas (Assam), Similipal (Orissa) & Sunderbans (West Bengal).
  • Only tiger reserve which is also a World Heritage Site – Manas Tiger Reserve.
  • 53rd Tiger Reserve of India – Guru Ghasidas National Park (Sanjay National Park) & Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary (Chhattisgarh).
  • International Tiger Day / Global Tiger Day – July 29.
    • International Tiger Day was observed for the first time in 2010 at the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia.
  • First Tiger Summit – St Petersburg, Russia (2010). 
  • 55th Tiger Reserve in India – Dholpur – Karauli Tiger Reserve (Rajasthan).


Project Tiger

  • Tiger Reserves in India are governed by – Project Tiger.
  • Purpose – To preserve Bengal tigers from extinction.
  • Project Tiger was launched in April 1973.
    • (Under the tenure of Indira Gandhi) with 9 reserves.
  • Project Tiger was launched in – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.
  • Total area covered  –  71027.10 km².
  • Project Tiger is administered by – National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).


National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

  • Established in – December 2005.
  • Following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
  • It was given statutory status by the 2006 amendment of the Wildlife Protection Act (1972).
  • Chairman – Environment Minister.


Tiger Census in India

Tiger Census 2018
  • Conducted every 4 years under the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
  • The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010, 2014, and in 2018.
  • The process used to take the census of Tigers – Pugmark
  • As per the Tiger Census of 2018, India has now 2,967 tigers.
  • Best-managed tiger reserves – Pench Sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) & Periyar sanctuary (Kerala)
  • M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) software developed by NTCA in 2010.


Tiger translocation project

  • First successful Tiger relocation carried out in – Rajasthan (2008).
    • tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska tiger reserve.
  • First Inter-State Tiger relocation programme was carried out in –  Madhya Pradesh to Odisha
    • Status – failed.
  • NTCA has suspended the Tiger translocation project after this failure.


Global Tiger Recovery Programme 
  • Declared at the first tiger summit @ Russia. 
  • Aim – to reverse the rapid decline of tigers, and also aim to double their numbers by 2022.
  • 13 Tiger range countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand & Vietnam.

Latest Tiger Reserves in India

As of February 2024, there are 55 tiger reserves in India. They are:

  • 51st Tiger Reserve – Kamlang Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh (2018) 
  • 52nd Tiger Reserve – Srivilliputtur Megamalai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu (2021)
  • 53rd Tiger Reserve – Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan (2021)
  • 54th Tiger Reserve – Ranipur Tiger Reserve, Uttar Pradesh (2022)
  • 55th Tiger Reserve – Dholpur-Karauli Tiger Reserve (2023)

List of Tiger Reserves in India



Sl. No.Name of Tiger ReserveStateYear of Inclusion under Project Tiger
1.Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger ReserveAndhra Pradesh1982-1983
2.Kamlang Tiger ReserveArunachal Pradesh2016-2017
3.Namdapha Tiger Reserve1982- 1983
4.Pakke Tiger Reserve1999-2000
5.Kaziranga Tiger ReserveAssam2008-2009
6.Manas Tiger Reserve1973-1974
7.Nameri Tiger Reserve1999-2000
8.Orang Tiger Reserve2016
9.Valmiki Tiger ReserveBihar1989-1990
10.Achanakmar Tiger ReserveChhattisgarh2008-2009
11.Indravati Tiger Reserve1982-1983
12.Udanti-Sitanadi Tiger Reserve2008-2009
13.Palamau Tiger ReserveJharkhand1973-1974
14.Bandipur Tiger ReserveKarnataka1973-1974
15.Bhadra Tiger Reserve1994-1995
16.Biligiri Ranganatha Temple Tiger Reserve2010-2011
17.Dandeli-Anshi (Kali) Tiger Reserve2008-2009
18.Nagarahole Tiger Reserve2008-2009
19.Parambikulam Tiger ReserveKerala2008-2009
20.Periyar Tiger Reserve1978-1979
21.Bandhavgarh Tiger ReserveMadhya Pradesh1993-1994
22.Kanha Tiger Reserve1973-1974
23.Panna Tiger Reserve1993-1994
24.Pench Tiger Reserve1992-1993
25.Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve2008-2009
26.Satpura Tiger Reserve1999-2000
27.Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve2023
28.Bor Tiger ReserveMaharashtra2014
29.Melghat Tiger Reserve1973-1974
30.Nawegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve2013-2014
31.Pench Tiger Reserve1998-1999
32.Sahyadri Tiger Reserve2009-2010
33.Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve1993-1994
34.Dampa Tiger ReserveMizoram1994-1995
35.Satkosia Tiger ReserveOdisha2008-2009
36.Similipal Tiger Reserve1973-1974
37.Mukandra Hills Tiger ReserveRajasthan2013-2014
38.Dholpur – Karauli Tiger Reserve2023
39.Ramgarh Vishdhari Tiger Reserve2022
40.Ranthambore Tiger Reserve1973-1974
41.Sariska Tiger Reserve1978-1979
42.Anamalai Tiger ReserveTamil Nadu2008-2009
43.Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve1988-1989
44.Mudumalai Tiger Reserve2008-2009
45.Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve2013-2014
46.Srivilliputhur Megamalai Tiger Reserve2020-2021
47.Amrabad Tiger ReserveTelangana2014-2015
48.Kawal Tiger Reserve2012-2013
49.Dudhwa Tiger ReserveUttar Pradesh1987-1988
50.Pilibhit Tiger Reserve2014
51.Ranipur Tiger Reserve2022-2023
Amanagarh buffer*2012-2013
52.Corbett Tiger ReserveUttarakhand1973-1974
53.Rajaji Tiger Reserve2015
54.Buxa Tiger ReserveWest Bengal1982-1983
55.Sunderbans Tiger Reserve1973-1974


SideNotes:

  • First National Park – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand (1936)
  • Hailey National Park was renamed as Jim Corbett National Park. 
  • Another nation with Tiger as the National Animal – Bangladesh.
  • Kaziranga National Park was started in the year – 2006. 
  • National Park having world’s largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses – Kaziranga National Park.
  • As per IUCN report in 2022, tigers become extinct in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

Thanks for reading.