Tiger Reserves of India for PSC

Tiger Reserves of India

Tiger Reserves of India

In India, the tiger reserves are protected under the "Project Tiger" which in turn is administered by National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). At the time when the National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed on 4th September 2006, there were only 9 reserves now it has been increased to 50 spanning over 18 states. 

The main purpose of the tiger reserve is to preserve endangered Bengal tigers from extinction and to protect critical tiger habitat, as India is the home to 80% of the world's Bengal tiger population.

The tiger reserves are divided on the basis of the core/buffer strategy. 
  1. The core areas are areas that have the legal status of a sanctuary or a national park. 
  2. Buffer areas are the peripheral areas that are a mix of forest and non-forest land which can be managed as multi-purpose areas.

Interesting Facts

  • National Animal of India – Tiger (Bengal Tiger)
  • Tiger was adopted as National animal in – April 1973
  • Scientific name of Tiger – Panthera Tigris
  • International Tiger Day – July 29
  • International Tiger Day was observed for the first time in 2010 at the St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia.
  • Number of Tiger Reserves in India – 50 
  • Largest no. of Tigers are found in – Madhya Pradesh (526)
  • Largest Tiger Reserve in India – Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Telangana (3,728 km2)
  • Smallest Tiger Reserve in India – Bor (Maharashtra)
  • First Tiger Reserve in Kerala – Periyar Tiger Reserve
  • 10th Tiger Reserve in India – Periyar, Kerala
  •  36th Tiger Reserve in India – Parambikulam, Kerala
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority was formed in – 4th September 2006 
  • National Park which has the highest density of tigers in the world – Kaziranga National Park 
  • Nandankanan Tiger Reserve (Odisha)is famous for white tigers.
  • Biosphere Tiger reserves – Manas (Assam), Similipal (Orissa) & Sunderbans (West Bengal)
  • Only tiger reserve which is also a World Heritage Site – Manas Tiger Reserve

Project Tiger

  • Tiger Reserves in India are governed by – Project Tiger
  • Purpose – To preserve Bengal tigers from extinction
  • Project Tiger was launched in April 1973 (Under the tenure of Indira Gandhi) with 9 reserves.
  • Project Tiger was launched in – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand
  • Total area covered  –  71027.10 km2
  • Project Tiger is administered by – National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

  • Established in – December 2005
  • Following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
  • It was given statutory status by the 2006 amendment of the Wildlife Protection Act (1972).
  • Chairman – Environment Minister

Tiger Census in India

Tiger Census 2018
  • Conducted every 4 years under the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
  • The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010, 2014, and in 2018.
  • The process used to take the census of Tigers – Pugmark
  • As per the Tiger Census of 2018, India has now 2,967 tigers.
  • Best-managed tiger reserves – Pench Sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) & Periyar sanctuary (Kerala)
  • M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers - Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) software developed by NTCA in 2010.

List of Tiger Reserves in India


Tiger Reserve Year of Creation State
Kaziranga 
Manas 
Nameri 
Orang
2008
1974
1999
2016 
Assam
Namdapha 
Pakhui 
1982
1999 
Arunachal Pradesh
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam 1982 Andhra Pradesh
Valmiki National Park1989 Bihar
Achanakmar 
Indravati 
Udanti & Sitanadi Tiger Reserve
2008
1983
2008
 
Chhattisgarh
Palamau  1974 Jharkhand
Bandipur 
Nagarhole 
Bhadra 
Anshi Dandeli 
1973
2008
1998
2008
 
 Karnataka
Periyar Tiger Reserve
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
1978
2008 
Kerala
Bandhavgarh 
Satpura 
Kanha 
Panna 
Pench 
Sanjay-Dubri 
1993
1981
1973
1994
1992
2008
 
Madhya Pradesh
Melghat 
Pench 
Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project
Sahyadri 
Nagzira-Navegaon  
Bor 
1973
1998
1995
2009
2013
2014
Maharashtra
Dampa 1994Mizoram
Satkosia 
Similipal 
 2008
1973
Odisha
Mukundara Hills 
Ranthambore 
Sariska 
2013
1973
1978 
Rajasthan
Anamalai 
Kalakkad Mundanthurai  
Mudumalai 
Sathyamangalam 
1976
1988
2008
2013 
Tamil Nadu
Kawal  
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam 
2012
1982
Telangana
Dudhwa  
Pilibhit 
1987
2014
Uttar Pradesh
Jim Corbett 
Rajaji National Park
1936
2015 
Uttarakhand
Buxa 
Sunderbans 
1982
1973
West Bengal


SideNotes

  • First National Park – Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand (1936)
  • Hailey National Park was renamed as Jim Corbett National Park. 
  • Another nation with Tiger as the National Animal – Bangladesh
  • Kaziranga National Park was started in the year – 2006 
  • National Park having world’s largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses – Kaziranga National Park 

Thanks for reading.
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