Brahmo Samaj | Short Notes

Brahmo Samaj

Brahmo Samaj (Society of Brahma) was a most influential socio-religious movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on August 20, 1828, in Calcutta, that incorporated the teachings from the Bible, Upanishads, and the Quran. 

It can be seen as the initial attempt by Indians to reform their religion and put a stop to its destructive practices.

Brahmo Samaj rejected the authority of Vedas, Hindu rituals, and rites and condemned polytheism, idol worship, karma, and the caste system.

It was instrumental in eradicating the evils of Sati, child marriage, female infanticide, dowry system, untouchability, superstition, and drug usage, and it campaigned for widow remarriage, education, especially for women, and the right of inheritance and property to women.

  • Founder – Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Founded on – August 20, 1828. (Calcutta)
  • Headquarters – Calcutta.
  • Former Names – Brahmasabha.
    • Brahmasabha was renamed 'Brahma Samaj' in – 1830.
  • Foreunner of Brahmo Samaj – Atmiya Sabha (1815).
    • First religious and intellectual reform movement in modern India.
  • Aim –  To purify Hinduism and to promote Monotheism.
  • Theology – Monotheism.
  • Bible of the Brahmo Samaj – Brahma Dharma.
    •  Bengali religious book was written by – Debendranath Tagore (1848).
    • Translator of Brahmadharma into Malayalam – Ayyathan Gopalan.
  • First Secretary – Tarachand Chakravarti.
  • Other Prominent Leaders – Debendranath Tagore, Keshav Chandra Sen, Pt. Shivanarayanan Shastri & Rabindranath Tagore.
  • On November 11, 1886, Brahmo samaj divided into – 
    • Brahmo Samaj of India (Leader – Keshav Chandra Sen).
      • Slogan – 'Brahmoism is Catholic & Universal.'
        • Again divided into Sadharan Brahmo Samaj on May 15, 1878 (Leaders – Ananda Mohan Bose, Umesh Chandra Dutta & Pt. Shivanarayanan Shastri).
        • Reason – Marriage of Keshav Chandra Sen's 13-year-old daughter Suniti with the Maharaja of Coochbehar (Bengal) in 1878.
    • Adi Brahmo Samaj (Leader – Devendra Nath Tagore).
      •  Slogan – Brahmoism is Hinduism.
  • Leaders of Brahma Samaj in Kerala – Ayyathan Gopalan.
  • Publications –  Samvad Kaumudi (means = The Moon of Intelligence, 1821).
    • First Bengali weekly newspaper.
    • First Indian newspaper edited, published & managed by Indians.
    • First Editor – Raja Ram Mohan Roy.


📝SideNotes:
  • Father of Indian Renaissance – Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • First Modern Man of India – Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Another publication edited by Raja Ram Mohan Roy – Mirat-ul-Akhbar (Persian weekly).
  • Father of Indian Social Revolution – Jyoti Rao Phule.
  • Who abolished Sati in India? William Bentick (1829).
  • The notable novel 'Parineeta' which centered on the theme of the dowry system and Brahmoism was written by – Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay (1914).
  • The branch of Brahmo Samaj at Kozhikode in 1898 was led by – Ayyathan Gopalan. (Previous Year PSC Question: Assistant Manager Gr. II-State Farming Corp, 2018)
  • Name the founder of Brahma Samaj – Raja Ram Mohan Roy. (Previous Year PSC Question: Welfare Officer Gr. II-Jail, 2019)
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