National Symbols of India: Complete List

India has many official national symbols like the national flag, an emblem, an anthem, etc picked up at various times. These symbols serve as a medium of inspiring pride, hope, and aspirations in the mind of the people thereby invoking patriotism in them.

National Symbols of India

National Flag: Tiranga/Tricolor Flag
National Emblem: National Emblem of India
National Anthem: Jana-Gana-Mana
National Song: Vande Mataram
National Pledge / Oath of Allegiance: “India Is My Country…”
National Currency: Rupee
National Language: Hindi
National Motto/Sentence: Satyamev Jayate
National Animal: Royal Bengal Tiger
National Aquatic Animal: Dolphin
  • National Heritage Animal: Elephant
    • National Heritage Mammal – Gray Langur
    • National Heritage Bird – Brahminy Kite or Indian Eagle
  • National Bird: Indian Peacock
    • National Land Bird – Indian Bustard
    • National Aquatic Bird – Kingfisher
  • National Reptile: King Cobra
    • National Aquatic Reptile – Gharial
National Amphibian: Purple Frog
National Flower: Lotus
National Fruit: Mango
National Tree: Banyan Tree
National Vegetable: Pumpkin
National Calendar: Saka Calendar
National Foreign Policy: Non-Alignment
National Information Letter: White Letter
National River: Ganga
National Mountain: Nanda Devi
National Festivals:
  • Republic Day (26th January)
  • Independence Day (15th August)
  • Gandhi Jayanti (2nd October)
National Sport: Field Hockey
National Epic: Mahabharatha
National Book: Gita
National Microbe: Lactobacillus delbrueckii
Father of the Nation: Mahatma Gandhi

National Flag of India:

Indian Flag

The National Flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (Kesari) representing sacrifice and patriotism at the top, white in the middle represents peace, the dark green at the bottom is for life and prosperity and at the center is the navy blue wheel (Asoka Chakra) with 24 equally spaced pokes.
  • Adopted on – 22nd January 1947
  • Designer – Pingali Venkaiah
  • Only institution authorized to manufacture and supply the national flag of India – Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyuktha Sangha (Hubli, Karnataka)
  • The tallest national flag in India is situated at: Belgaum (361 ft, Karnataka).

Flag Code of India

In order to prevent the improper use of the National flag, the Flag code of India was first introduced in 1968. In 26 January 2002, flag code was updated combining the previous provisions of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950, and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971. It was further amended in 2005.

National Emblem of India:

State Emblem of India

The National Emblem of India is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath (representing motto "Satyameva Jayate: Truth Alone Triumphs"), near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Emblem contains 4 Asiatic lions (representing courage, confidence, and power) mounted at the top with sculptures and at the bottom is an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull, and a lion separated by intervening wheels of Dharma Chakra over a bell-shaped lotus.
  • Adopted on – 26th January 1950
  • Designer – Dinanath Bhargava
  • Animals Found on the Emblem – Lion, Elephant, Horse, Bull

National Anthem of India:

Jana-Gana-Mana.. in its Hindi version is our National Anthem.
जनगणमन अधिनायक जय हे, भारतभाग्यविधाता। 
पंजाब सिंध गुजरात मराठा, द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग। 
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा, उच्छल जलधि तरंग। 
तव शुभ नामे जागे, तव शुभ आशिष मागे। 
गाहे तव जयगाथा। 
जनगणमंगलदायक जय हे, भारतभाग्यविधाता। 
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय जय हे॥ 
  • Adopted on – 24th January 1950.
  • Language of Origin – Bengali (Sadhu bhasha)
  • Written by – Rabindranath Tagore
  • Composed by – Ram Singh Thakur
  • Duration – 52 seconds (Short version – 20 seconds)
  • First Recited on – Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress (27 December 1911)

National Song of India:

The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, is our National song.
वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
मलयज शीतलाम्
सस्यश्यामलाम्
मातरम्।
वन्दे मातरम्।
शुभ्रज्योत्स्नाम्
पुलकितयामिनीम्
फुल्लकुसुमित
द्रुमदलशोभिनीम्
सुहासिनीम्
सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
मातरम्।।
वन्दे मातरम्।
  • Adopted on – 24th January 1950 (by Dr. Rajendra Prasad)
  • Language of Origin – Bengali.
  • Written by – Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (Novel – ‘Anand Math’, 1882)
  • Composed by – Jadunath Bhattacharya
  • Duration – 65 seconds
  • First Recited on – 1896, 12th Annual Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.

National Pledge of India:

“India is my country…” , the National Pledge is an oath of allegiance recited in schools during the Independence Day and Republic Day celebrations.
भारत मेरा देश है।
सब भारतवासी मेरे भाई-बहन हैं।
मैं अपने देश से प्रेम करता हैं।
इसकी समृद्ध एवं विविध संस्कृति पर मुझे गर्व है।
मैं सदा इसका सुयोग्य अधिकारी बनने का प्रयत्न करता रहूँगा।
मैं अपने माता-पिता, शिक्षको एवं गुरुजनो का सम्मान करूँगा और प्रत्येक के साथ विनीत रहूँगा।
मैं अपने देश और देशवाशियों के प्रति सत्यनिष्ठा की प्रतिज्ञा करता हूँ।
इनके कल्याण एवं समृद्धि में ही मेरा सुख निहित है।
  • Written by – Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao
  • Language of Origin – Telugu.
  • The chairman of the committee which decided to swear National pledge in schools – M. C. Chagla

National Currency of India:

The official currency of the country is Indian Rupee.
  • Issued & Controlled by – RBI
  • Subunit – Paisa
  • Symbol
    • Designed by – Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam (2010)
    • Derived from – Devanagari consonant "र" (ra)
    • The coins with the rupee symbol were issued from 2011.

National Language of India:

  • Article 343 (1) – The article that declares Hindi as the official language of India.

National Animal of India:

Royal Bengal Tiger

The Royal Bengal Tiger symbolizing India's wealth of wildlife is the National Animal of India.
  • Tiger was declared as the national animal of India in 1972.
  • Scientific name – Panthera tigris
  • Before the tiger, the lion was the national animal of India

Read More about the Tiger Reserves of India

National Aquatic Animal of India:

The Ganges River Dolphin is the National Animal of India.
  • Scientific Name – Platanista gangetica
  • Ganges River Dolphin was declared as the National Aquatic Animal in 2009, October.

National Heritage Animal of India:

The Asian Elephant is the National Heritage Animal of India.
  • Scientific Name – Elephas Maximus indicus
  • The elephant was declared as the National Heritage Animal in October 2010.
  • It is declared as one of the endangered animals by IUCN

National Bird of India: The Indian Peacock/Indian Pea Fowl (scientific name: Pavo cristatus) was declared as the National Bird of India on February 1, 1963.

National Reptile of India: King Cobra is the national reptile of India. It is the world's longest venomous snake (18.8 ft).

National Flower of India: Lotus (scientific name: Nelumbo nucifera) is the National Flower of India.

National Fruit of India: The Mango (scientific name: Mangifera Indica) is the National Fruit. India is home to more than 100 varieties of mangoes and It has been cultivated since time immemorial.

National Tree of India: The National Tree of India is the Indian Banyan Tree (scientific name: Ficus bengalensis) which is only found in the Indian subcontinent. Thimmamma Marrimanu located in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, spread over 7 acres is the world’s largest single tree canopy.

National Sport of India: Field Hockey is considered unofficially as the National Sport. Home Ministry has clarified that officially, no sport has been accorded to hold the status of national Sport.

National Calendar of India:

The Saka calendar based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month is the national calendar of India. The normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March 1957. Vikram Samvat is also used in certain parts of India. The months of Saka Calendar are as follows:
चैत्र
वैशाख
ज्येष्ठ (जेठ)
आषाढ़
श्रावण (सावन)
भाद्रपद (भादों)
अश्विन (क्वार)
कार्तिक
अग्रहायण (अगहन) 
पौष
माघ
फाल्गुन

National River of India:

Ganga was declared as the national river of Indian in November 2008.
  • Length – 2525 KM
  • Longest river in India
  • Home to endangered species, Ganges river dolphins.
National Microbe of India: India's former Minister of State for Environment and Forests, Jayanthi Natarajan, on October 18, 2012, declared 'Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus' as the National Microbe of India.

SideNotes:

  • Vikram Samvat – Official Calendar of Nepal.
  • Hockey – 
    • Total players in a Hockey team – 11.
    • The total time duration of a Hockey game – 70 minutes.
    • Hockey Wizard – Dhyanchand.

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