Kasaragod | Districts of Kerala

Kasaragod | Districts of Kerala

Kasaragod, often known as the Land of Gods and Land of Rivers, is the northernmost district of Kerala. 

Bound by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west, it boasts a beautiful natural landscape with twelve rivers.

The district is also known for its picturesque landscapes, pristine beaches, and cultural heritage. It continues to thrive as a melting pot of different communities, contributing to its rich tapestry of traditions and customs.

The lengthy section below provides information different aspects of the Kasaragod district of Kerala, which may prove helpful for all Kerala PSC and other competitive exam aspirants as they prepare for future exams. 

Basic Facts About Kasaragod

  • Formed on – May 24, 1984.
  • Area – 1992 sq. km.
  • Coastal Line – 293 km.
  • Population –  1,204,078 (2011 census).
  • Gender Ratio – 1080 / 1000.
  • Population Density – 657 / sq. km.
  • The last formed district in Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • The northernmost district of Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • The second smallest district in Kerala – Kasaragod (1989 km2).
  • The second 'Zero Landless District' of Kerala – Kasaragod (2016).
  • Boundaries – 
    • East – Western Ghats.
    • West – Arabian Sea.
    • South – Kannur district.
    • North – South Canara district of Karnataka
  • Epithets – Land of Gods, Land of Rivers, Sapthabhasha Sangamabhoomi (as seven major languages are spoken here: Malayalam, English, Urdu, Kannada, Tulu, Konkani, Byari).
    • The Coorg of Kerala – Malom.
  • The district with the highest number of local language speakers in Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • Only district of Kerala where Tulu and Byari languages are spoken – Kasaragod.
    • The unscripted language on the Kerala-Karnataka border – Byari
  • The second district in India to achieve total primary education – Kasaragod.
  • The cultural capital of Kasaragod – Nileshwaram.
  • The northernmost dynasty of Kerala – Kumbla Kingdom.
  • Only tobacco producing district in Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • The largest tobacco producing district in Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • The second largest producer of Arecanut in Kerala – Kasaragod.
  • The only man-made forest in Kerala – Kareem's Forest Park (Puliyamkulam).
  • The district where the Suranga wells are located – Kasaragod.
  • The largest deposits of Bauxite in Kerala are found in – Nileshwaram.
  • Major Wildlife Sanctuaries – 
    1. Malom Wildlife Sanctuary,
    2. Ranipuram Wildlife Sanctuary,
    3. Parappa Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Beaches  – Kanwatheertha Beach, Kappil Beach, Thaikadappuram beach.
    • Thaikadappuram beach –  famous for the rare Olive Ridley Turtles that lay eggs on the shore in the monsoon season.
  • Fishing Harbors – Bekal, Cheruvathoor.
  • Temples – Mallikarjuna Temple, Malla Temple, Madhur Ganesh Temple, Adoor Mahalingeswara Temple.
    • The temple in which the stone inscription of the Chalukya king Kirtivarman II was found – Adoor Sree Mahalingeswara Temple. 
  • Mosque –  Malik Dinar Juma Masjid, Nellikkunnu Mosque.
    • The second oldest mosque in India – Malik Dinar Juma Masjid.
    • The place in Kasaragod famous for making the traditional hand-made prayer cap (skull cap) of Muslims – Thalangara (Thalangara Thoppi).
      • also known as Omani caps in the Middle East.
      • mentioned in the works of medieval Muslim traveler and author Ibn Battuta.
  • Church –  Bela Church.
    • The oldest church in Kasaragod district – Bela Church / Our Lady of Sorrows Church (1890). 
  • Museums – Archaeological Museum (Nehru College).
  • Historical Events 
    • Yachana Yatra (1931)
    • Kadakam Forest Satyagraha (1932)
    • Kayyur Revolt (1941)
    • Tholvirak Strike (1946)
  • Wildlife Sanctuaries Ranipuram Wildlife Sanctuary, Malom Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Tribes of Kasaragod – Korangar, Malakkudi, Mavilar, Koppalar, Malavattu, Velan, Kadaan, Narasanar, Madigar, Bakur, Moger & Pulaiyar.
  • Thermal Power Plant – Cheemeni Thermal Power Plant.
    • The fuel used in Cheemeni thermal power station – Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).
  • National Highway – NH 66.
  • Tourist attractions –  Maipady Palace, Kottancheri Hills, Veeramala Hills, Pandiyan Kallu, Kammadam Kavu, Anekallu bridge.

Etymology of Kasaragod

There are different opinions about the origin of the name "Kasaragod."

One opinion suggests that Kasaragod is a combination of two Sanskrit words, 'Kasara' (lake or pond) and 'Kroda' (place where treasure is kept).

Another opinion is that the name Kasaragod is derived from the Kannada word 'Kusirakoot,' meaning group of wormwood trees. It can be understood that ancient people of Kerala also called Kasaragod by the same name as Kanjirod.

History of Kasaragod

Ancient Times & Medieval Times

Kasaragod is home to ancient human settlements dating back to the Great Stone Age,  Pottery, copper, and ancient ironworks provide hints for these settlements in Chenkal areas in midlands of the district.

The district is home to various tribes and has a rich history of Buddhism and Jainism. The influence of the Vedic religion in Kerala was stronger during the time of Sankaracharya. 

Kasaragod's northernmost regions were once a part of the Tuluva kingdom, and it had 32 Tulu and 32 Malayalam villages. 

While the Chirakkal (Mushika or Kolathiri) Royal Family of North Kerala ruled over the central and southern regions. 

The region was developed during the reign of the Ezhimala dynasty (Tamil name for Mushika) and later by the Muthu Dynasty. Later Vijayanagara empire attacked Kolathiri and conquered this region of strategic importance.

The Vijayanagara empire declined after the Battle of Talikota in 1565 and was divided into provinces, with the Ikkeri Nayaka  dynasty establishing control over the region. Bekal Fort, built during this period, was constructed to defend against foreign invasions. 

The Mysore Sultan, Hyder Ali, invaded the Ikkeri dynasty in 1763 and conquered Malabar fortresses. However, he died in 1782 without realising his dream of capturing the entire Kerala region. 

His son, Tipu Sultan, later conquered the Malabar region and with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam of 1792, he ceded Malabar except Tulunadu (Canara) to the British. 

Only until Tipu Sultan died in 1799 in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War did the British gained the control of Canara region.

Foreign Travellers to Kasaragod

Many Arab travellers who arrived in Kerala between the 9th and 14th centuries A.D. visited Kasaragod, which was then an important trade center. They dubbed this place Harkwillia

Duarte Barbosa, the Portuguese navigator who visited Kumbla in Kasaragod in 1514, noted that rice was shipped to Male Island, whence the coir was imported.

Dr. Francis Buchanan, surgeon to then Governor-General of India, Lord Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasaragod in 1801. In his travels, he discusses the political and communal structures in areas like as Athiparamba, Kavvai, Nileshwar, Bekkal, Chandragiri, and Manjeshwar.

Formation of Kasaragod District

Kasaragod taluk, the part of Bekal taluk, was established on April 16, 1882 when Bekal taluk was included in Madras presidency.

In 1913, a resolution by Vengayil Kunhiraman Nayanar was moved in the Madras Governor's Council demanding merger of Kasaragod taluk with Malabar district. Later, it was withdrawn due to Karnataka's opposition. 

In 1927, Malayalee Seva Sangham was established under imminent personalities like K.P. Keshava Menon, and with their efforts led to the merging of Kasaragod with Kerala. 

The state of Kerala was formed on November 1, 1956, by combining Malabar district and Kasaragod taluk of Dakshina Kannada into Travancore-Kochi under the State Reorganisation Act.

At the time of Kerala district formation, the Malabar district was divided into 3 districts, namely Kannur, Kozhikode and Palakkad. Kasaragod taluk was then divided into Kasaragod and Hosdurg talukas and became a part of the Kannur district.

Kasaragod district was then formed on 24 May 1984 by merging Hosdurg and Kasaragod taluks which were part of the Kannur district.

Revolts in Kasaragod District of Kerala

Kasaragod district has been a hotbed of various revolts and movements, reflecting the socio-political dynamics of the region.

1. Yachana Yatra (1931)
V. T. Bhattathiripad
  • Date – April 26, 1931.
  • Duration – 7 days.
  • Leader – V. T. Bhattathiripad.
  • Place – Thrissur to Chandragiri River (Kasaragod).
  • Cause – For the education of children from poor economic conditions.

2. Kadakam Forest Satyagraha (1932)
  • Date – April, 1932.
  • Leaders – A. V. Kunjambu, Manjunatha Hegde, Kizhakke Valappil Kannan, Adv. Umesh Rao, Naranthatta Krishnan Nair, P. Krishna Pillai and K. A. Keraleeyan.
  • Details – The forest satyagraha protested against the British Forest Act of 1927, which infringed on peasants' ancestral rights. The Indian National Congress led the satyagraha, mobilizing the people of Kadakam to disrupt British plans for teak and rosewood use in Royal Navy warships. 

3. Kayyur Revolt (1941):
  • Date – October 22, 1941.
  • Leaders – P. Krishnapillai, A.K.G., T. S. Thirumumpu,  E. K. Nayanar.
  • Four Martys of Kayyur Revolt –  (hanged on March 29, 1943)
    1. Madathil Appu, 
    2. Pallikkal Aboobacker,
    3. Koithattil Chirukandan, 
    4. Podora Kunjambu Nair.
  • Niranjana
    The former Chief Minister of Kerala who was known as 'Kayyur Samara Naakan' – E.K. Nayanar.
  • Name the novel written by Kannada writer Niranjana* based on the Kayyur uprising of 1941 – Chirasmarane.
  • Name the film directed by Lenin Rajendran featuring the communist and anti-feudal struggles and martyrdom in the Kayyur Struggle – Meenamasathile Sooryan (1986).
  • Details – The Kayyur revolt was a peasant uprising organised by the Communist party against the oppressive feudal system and exploitation by landlords in the region.

4. Tholvirak Strike (1946):
  • Date – November 15, 1946.
  • Leaders – Activists from various political organizations
  • The person who was known as 'Kayyur Samara Naayika' – Karthyayani Amma.
  • Slogan – 'Tholum Virakum Njangaledukkum Kaalan Vannuthaduthaalum.'
    • Written by – K.A. Keraleeyan (Poet).
  • Details – In November 1946, Tholvirak Strike, led by women, began in Cheemeni Estate, owned by T. Subahmanyan. The women, who relied on the Chimeni forest for firewood, hide, grass for the house making, felt their rights were violated when the estate was handed over to John Kotukappally. Under the Farmers' Union, over 100 women organized a protest march, leading to their arrest but not withdrawing until their rights to leather and firewood were restored.


Kasaragod map

  • No. of Revenue Divisions – 2.
  • No. of Municipalities in Kasaragod – 3 (Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Nileshwaram).
  • No. of Block Panchayats in Kasaragod – 6.
    1. Manjeswaram, 
    2. Kasaragod, 
    3. Kanhangad, 
    4. Nileswaram, 
    5. Parappa, 
    6. Karadukka
  • No. of Gram Panchayats in Kasaragod – 38.
  • No. of Villages – 128.
  • No. of Taluks in Kasaragod – 4.
    1. Kasaragod, 
    2. Hosdurg, 
    3. Vellarikundu, 
    4. Manjeswaram.
  • The northernmost Taluk of Kerala – Manjeswaram.
  • The northernmost railway station in Kerala – Manjeswaram.
  • The northernmost Assembly Constituency in Kerala – Manjeswaram.
    • No. of Legislative Assembly Constituencies in Kasaragod – 5.
        1. Manjeswharam
        2. Kasargod
        3. Udma
        4. Kanhangad
        5. Thrikkarippur
    • No. of Legislative Loksabha Constituencies in Kasaragod – 1 (Kasaragod).
    • The northern most Loksabha Constituency in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • The northernmost village in Kerala – Thalappadi Village.

    Official Symbols of Kasaragod

    First District Panchayat in India to have official symbols-official tree, flower, bird, species – Kasaragod.

    TitleOfficial SymbolScientific Name
    Official AnimalBheemanama /
    Asian Giant Softshell Turtle /
    Cantor's Giant Softshell Turtle
    Pelochelys cantorii
    Official BirdWhite Bellied Sea HawkHaliaeetus leucogaster
    Official TreeKanjiramStrychnos nux-vomica
    Official FlowerMalabar River Lily Crinum malabaricum

    Firsts of Kasaragod

    • The First bio district in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • The first fully organic Grama Panchayat in Kerala – Panathady.
    • The first e-payment panchayat in Kerala – Manjeswaram.
    • The First Free Wi-Fi Panchayat in India – Thrikkaripur.
    • The First e-psc office in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • India's first filament bulb free grama panchayat – Pilicode (Kasaragod).
    • The place where telemedicine first started for Lymphatic Filariasis  – Kasaragod.
    • The First fully Blood Donation Panchayat in Kerala – Madikai (Kasaragod).
    • The First gramapanchayat in Kerala to win Nirmal Gram Puraskar – Pilicode (2005).
    • The first complete crop insurance district in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • The first hybrid coconut plantation of Kerala was established in – Nileswaram.
    • The first town in Kerala famous for cultivating 'Chengthengu' (red dwarf coconut) – Nileswaram (Kasaragod).
    • The district where rubber check dams are being implemented for the first time in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • The constituency represented by First chief minister of Kerala E.M.S in the 1st Kerala Legislative Assembly – Nileshwaram (Kasargod).
    • The First person to be elected unopposed in the Assembly elections – Umesh Rao (Manjeswaram constituency, 1957).

    Forts of Kasaragod

    • The district has the most number of forts in Kerala – Kasaragod.
    • Important Forts of Kasaragod – Bekal Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Hos Durg Fort, Kumbala Fort, Povwal Fort.
    • The largest fort in Kerala – Bekal Fort.
    Bekal Fort

    • The Bekal fort was built by – Shivappa Naikkar (of the Keladi dynasty, 1650).
      •  Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka initiated the fort construction, and Shivappa Nayaka finished it.
    • The old name of Bekal fort – Fufal.
    • Bekal Tourism Development Corporation was formed in – 1995.
    • The fort which is known as the Kanhangad Fort – Hos Durg Fort (Puthiyakotta Fort).
      • Hosdurg Fort is a fort in Kanhangad in Kasaragod district.
      • 'Somashekara Nayaka' from the Keladi Nayaka dynasty of Ikkeri built Hosdurg fort.
    • Kumbala Fort is also known as – Arikady Fort.
    • Kumbala Fort was built by – Ikeri Hiriya Venkadappa Nayak (1608).

    River, Lakes & Hill stations of Kasaragod

    • The district in Kerala in which most number of rivers flow – Kasargod.
    • No. of rivers flowing through Kasaragod – 12.
    • Major Rivers of Kasargod – Chandragiri River, Shiria, Mogral, Uppala, Manjeswaram, Nileswaram.

    Chandragiri River

    • Source –  Kadamakal Reserve Forest,  Kodagu, Karnataka.
    • Mouth – Arabian Sea (Thalangara).
    • Also known as Payaswinipuzha & Perumpuzha.
    • The Longest river in Kasargod district – Chandragiri River (105 km).
    • The river which flows in 'U' shape around Kasargod town – Chandragiri River.
    • The river is named after Chandragupta Mauryan, the founder of the Mauryan Empire – Chandragiri River.
      • It is believed that Chandragupta Mauryan, the ruler of the Chandragupta Empire, left his palace and spent his last days as a Jain monk in this area. Chandragiripuzha got its name from it.
    • Tributaries – Payaswini River, Kudumbur River.
    • The largest tributary of Chandragiri River – Kudumbur River.
    • The famous fort situated on the banks of the Chandragiri River – Chandragiri fort.
    • Chandragiri fort was constructed by – Shivappa Naikkar.
      • Chandragiri fort and Bekkal fort are considered to be part of a chain of forts constructed in the 17th century by Sivappa Nayak who belongs to Ikerinaikan fynasty.
    •  The Land Of Chandragiri – Chemnad. 

    Neeleshwaram River

    • Source – Greater Talacauvery National Park, Western Ghats, Karnataka.
    • Mouth – Kavvayi Backwaters.
    • Length of Neeleshwaram River – 46 km.
    • The second longest river in the Kasargod district – Neeleshwaram River. 
    • The river is also known as Araipuzha – Neeleshwaram River.
    • The river joins Tejaswini river near its mouth – Neeleshwaram River.
    • The river that forms the boundary between Kasargod and Kannur districts – Kariangode river.
    • Name the incident associated with the Kariangode river – Kayyur Revolt.
    • The Kariangode river is also known as – Tejaswini River.
    • Tributaries – Edathod river, Mayanganam river. 

    Manjeshwaram River

    • The shortest river in Kerala – Manjeshwaram River (16km).
    • The northern most river in Kerala – Manjeshwaram River.
      • Origin – Balapooni hills.
      • Mouth – Uppala Lake.
    • The river also known as Thalappadipuzha – Manjeshwaram River.
    • The river flows only through the Kasaragod district – Manjeshwaram River.

    Manjeshwaram RiverKadandur hills16
    Uppala RiverKudipadi hills, Veerakamba50
    Shiriya RiverKanakad hills, Anegundi Reserve Forest61
    Kumbla RiverYedanad11
    Mogral RiverKanlur, Karadka Reserve Forest34
    Chandragiri RiverPatti forest, Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary105
    Kalnad RiverChettianchal8
    Bekal RiverKaniyadka11
    Chittari RiverKundiya25
    Neeleshwaram River
    (Thejaswini River)
    Kinanoor, Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary47
    Kariangode RiverPadinalkad, Coorg hills64
    Kavvayi RiverCheemeni23

    • The famous Mutt that was established on the banks of Madhuvahinipuzha by Todakacharya, a disciple of Sankaracharya – Edaneeru Mutt. 
    • The temple located on the banks of the Madhuvahini River (Mogral river) – Madhur Temple.
      • The main deity of the Madhur temple – Ganapathy.
      • Three tiered Gajaprishta type of architecture, which resembles the back of an elephant. 
      • Wooden carvings of Ramayana stories depicted on the walls.
    • The main island of Kavvayi Kayal – Valiyaparamba.
      • The third largest island in Kerala – Valiyaparamba.
    • The Northermost lake in Kerala – Uppala.
    •  The only lake temple / backwater temple in Kerala – Ananthapura Lake Temple (a 9th century temple).
    • The diety of Ananthapura Lake Temple – Mahavishnu.
    • The temple which is believed to be the original seat (Moolasthanam) of Ananthapadmanabha Swami (Padmanabhaswamy temple) of Thiruvananthapuram – Ananthapura Lake Temple.
    • The vegetarian crocodile who was considered as the protector of the Ananthapuram temple – Babiya (died in 2022, aged 75). 
    • Ooty of Kerala – Ranipuram.
    • Earlier name of Ranipuram – Madathumala.

    Major Art Forms of Kasargod



    • The person who popularized Yakshaganam – Sivaramakaranth.
    • The art form was revived by the Kannada writer Sivaramakaranth – Yakshaganam.
    • Father of Yakshaganam – Parthi Subbaya.
    • The temple where Yakshaganam is believed to be originated – Madhur Temple. 

    Yakshaganam is a traditional art form from the Indian state of Karnataka. Yakshaganam is centred on Karnataka's coastal regions. "Yakshaganam," also known as "Bayalattam," is an art form that is similar to Kerala's distinctive art form, Kathakali, but differs in that Yakshaganam performers may talk.

    Yakshagana Bombeyatta (puppetry)

    Yakshagana Bombeyatta

    Yakshagana Bombeyatta (puppetry) is a popular art form in the state of Karnataka and Kasaragod district. 

    The puppet show is an adaptation of Yakshagana, a traditional dance drama common in these areas. The puppets, which are often made of wood, are costumed and adorned to resemble Yakshagana performers.

     The most well-known exponent of this art in Kerala is the Sri Gopalakrishna Yakshagana Bombeyatta Sangha (troupe).


    • Theyyam is also known as – Kaliyattam & Thira.
    • The ballad that sung just before performing the Theyyam ritual – Thottam Pattukal.
    • The dance of Theyyam is known as –  Theyyattam.
    • The costume of Theyyam is known as – Theyyakolam.

    Theyam is a ritualistic artform mainly popular in the northern districts of Kerala. Theyyam is based on the concept of a dancing deity and it is also known as Kaliyattam to the north of Pasihangadipuzha.

    Theyam is mainly performed in the North Malabar region, mainly in Kasaragod and Kannur districts and Mananthavadi taluk (Wayanad), Vadakara and Koyilandi taluks (Kozhikode).

    It is also said that the characters appearing in Theyyam, the ritualistic folk dance of northern Kerala, represent those who had helped king Kolathiri fight against the attack of the Vijayanagar empire.


    Mangalamkali is a form of music and dance art form prevalent among the Mavilan and Malavetuvan communities in Kasaragod's eastern districts. It is a distinctive art form used in these cultures' wedding ceremonies.

    Although there is a variation in the songs sung by Malavettu and Mavilar, the presentation is not fundamentally different. 

    Wedding rites are not expressly mentioned in the Mangalamkali songs. Every song conveys a tale. Many songs provide an accurate depiction of human life. Most songs have their unique melodies and are sung in Malayalam and Tulu.

    Karichiamma, a resident of Parappa Puliyamkulam, is credited for popularising this art.


    Alamikali is a prominent ritual art form in some areas of Kasaragod district, Karnataka, and Mangalore. This celebration highlights the religious harmony of the Hindus and Muslims. 

    The Alamis were Hanafi Fakirs, and the natives referred to these Muslims as Turkans and Sahibans. They belonged to Tipu's warriors. Alamis' site of worship and major venue for Alamikkali is Alamipalli (does not have a mosque) located in Puthiyakota near Kanhangad. 

    The Alami festival was established to commemorate the crucial battle of Karbala in Islamic history. It is said that during the Battle of Karbala, the enemy dressed in black and terrified the children. 

    Hindus who play the part of Alami by apply charcoal to their body and leaving white patches. They wear flower and leaf necklaces around their necks and use munda fibres to embellish their moustaches and beards. 

    They wear knee-length dhotis and a spathe cap on their heads, which contains ixora coccinea (the principal flower used for pooja in Kerala).  A small stick with bells tied on it will be in hand.

    Alamis travelled in groups of five or six. They visit every home asking for alms. 

    Alamikkali songs have a distinct tone and verse: "lassolayma... lasso... layma... layma... laymalo..." are the beginning and ending lines of each song.
    The other famous arts and fairs of Kasaragod include Poorakkali, Kolkali, Daf Mutt, Oppana, Thidambu dance, Kambala (Buffalo Race) and Kozhiyangam (Cock Fight). 

    Institutions, Memorials & Headquarters in Kasaragod

    • Central Horticulture Research Center (CPCRI) – Kudlu (Kasaragod).
    • The only Lemongrass research center in India – Kasaragod.
    • Regional Agriculture Research Station – Pilicode.
    • Second Open Jail in Kerala – Cheemeni (Kasaragod). 
    • KINFRA Industrial Park – Seethangoli.
    • Kanjan Junga Art Village
    • Anandashram – Swami Ramdas (1939)
    • Nityanandashram – Swami Nityananda (1963).

    • Memorials – 
      • P. Kunjiraman Nair Memorial (Kanhangad).
      • T.S. Thirumump Memorial (Pilicode).
      • Govinda Pai Memorial (Manjeswaram).
        • One of the greatest Kannada poets of modern times.
        • The erstwhile Madras Government conferred him with the title of 'Poet Laureate.'
        • He is known as Rashtra Kavi Govinda Pai.

    • Headquarters – 
      • Central University of Kerala (Thejaswini Hills) – Periye (Kasaragod, 2009).
        • Motto – Amritham Tu Vidya (Knowledge is Eternal)
        • Chancellor – Prof. SV Seshagiri Rao.
        • Vice-Chancellor – Prof. H. Venkateshwarlu.
        •  First Vice-Chancellor of Central University of Kerala – Dr. Jancy James.
        • The Central University of Kerala at Kasaragod had set up a chair in the name of Mahatma Ayyankali (First in Kerala) in 2013.
        • The new Administrative Block of Central University of Kerala is named after – Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Bhavan).
      •  Tulu Academy  Manjeswaram.                

    Famous Personalities from Kasaragod

    • Ambikasuthan Mangad (Writer) 
    • P. Kunhiraman Nair (Poet)
    P. Kunhiraman Nair (Poet)
    • Kanai Kunhiraman (Sculptor)
    • T. Subramanian Thirumump (Poet, Social Reformer)
    • T. Ubaid (Poet)
    • Anil Kumble (Cricket)
    • Mohammed Azharuddeen (Kerala Cricket)
    • K. K. Venugopal (Attorney General of India)
    • Kesavananda Bharati (Social reformer)
    • Santhosh Echikkanam (Writer)
    • Asif Kottayil (Footballer)
    • M. Govinda Pai (Kannada Poet)
    • Arya (Actor)
    • Kavya Madhavan (Actress)
    • Sara Aboobacker  (Kannada Writer)
      • The first Muslim writer in Kannada – Sara Aboobacker.
      • Translated into Kannada – Madhavikutty's 'Manomi', PK Balakrishnan's 'Ini Njan Urangatte' & BM Suhara's 'Mozhi'.
      • Passed away on January 10, 2023.

    Kasaragod & Endosulfan

    • Endosulfan was developed in – 1954.
    • Endosulfan belongs to the category of – Organo chlorides.
    • Chemical Formula of Endosulfan – C9H6Cl6O3S.
    • Other names of Endosulfan – Benzoepin, Parrysulfan, Endocel, Phasar, Thiodan & Thionex.
    • Characteristics of Endosulfan – 
      • was the cheapest broad-spectrum insecticide.
      • Cream to brown solid that can appear as crystals or flakes.
      • Turpentine like odour.
      • causes health hazards like blocks the inhibitory receptors of the Central nervous system (CNS) - neurotoxicity, late sexual maturity, physical deformities, poisoning, etc.
    • The tragedy which is considered as the Second Bhopal Disaster Endosulfan tragedy.
    • In the 1970s, the pesticide Endosulfan is widely used in the cultivation of – Cashew nut.
    • Places in Kasaragod affected by Endosulfan – Petra, Swarga.
    • Leader of fight against Endosulfan – Leela Kumari Amma.
    Leela Kumari Amma
    • The book written by Leela Kumari Amma – Jeevadayini.
    • Commission appointed by central govt to enquire about endosulfan disaster –  C. D. Mayi Commission.
    • Commission appointed by Kerala govt to enquire about endosulfan disaster –  C. Achuthan Commission.
    • Endosulfan Rehabilitation Village – Muliyar.
    • The first country in the world to ban endosulfan was – Philippines (1992).
    • The Kerala government banned endosulfan in – 2005.
    • The Supreme Court banned the manufacture, storage and sale of endosulfan permanently in – 2011.
    • A global ban on endosulfan was placed on the manufacture and use of Endosulfan by the seventh meeting of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP’s) in the year – 2011.
    • Name the director of the film "Valiya Chirakulla Pakshikal" released in 2015 with the endosulfan disaster as its central theme –  Dr. Biju.
    • Name the Malayalam movie directed by Manoj Kana that depicts the sufferings of endosulfan victims – Amoeba.
    • Name the film based on political violences and fight against Endosulfan menace in Kasargod directed by the filmmaker Jayaraj – Pakarnnattam.
    • The Malayalam novel based on the life of people in the Endoculfan affected areas in Kasaragod – Enmakaje (Ambika Suthan Mangadu).
    Enmakaje – Swarga
      • Name the central characters of the novel Enmakaje – Neelakantan & Devayani.
      • English translation of Enmakaje – Swarga (by J. Devika).
    • Name the operation launched to dispose of the obsolete stocks of endosulfan lying in the godowns of the Plantation Corporation of Kerala estates in Kasaragod district – Operation Blossom Spring.

    Social Welfare Schemes of Kasaragod

    The following schemes were first started in Kasaragod district:
    • Madhura Prabhatham –  to feed children who come to school without having breakfast.
    • Pen Friends –  a project that collects and recycles unusable plastic pens; part of Haritha Kerala Mission.
    • Snehasanthwanam – Kerala government scheme to provide relief measures to endosulfan victims in the state.

    📝 SideNotes:

    • The Smallest District in Kerala – Alappuzha (1,415 km2).
    • The district which is known as the 'Ooty of Kerala' – Wayanad.
    • The place which is known as the 'Mini Ooty' – Arimbra Hills (Malappuram).
    • The place which is known as the 'Poor Man's Ooty' – Nelliampathi (Palakkad).
    • The place which is known as the 'Ooty of Southern Kerala' – Ponmudi (Thiruvananthapuram).
    • The place which is known as the 'Ooty of Malabar' – Thonikadavu (Kozhikode).
    • The place which is known as the 'Gavi of Malabar' – Vayalada (Kozhikode).
    • The place which is known as the 'Ooty of Malappuram' – Kodikuthimala (Malappuram).
    • The major coconut variety developed at the Central Horticulture Research Centre – TxD.
    • The major arecanut variety developed at the Central Horticulture Research Centre – Mangla.
    • The first district in India to achieve complete primary education – Kannur (2001).
    • 'Mushika Vamsa'  was an epic Sanskrit poem written detailing the history of the Mushika dynasty by the poet – Atula.
    • *The real name of the Kannada writer and freedom fighter, Niranjana – Kulakunda Shiva Rao.
    • Autobiography of A.K.Gopalan – Ente Jeevitha Katha. 
    • Autobiography of E. K. Nayanar – My Struggle.
    • KINFRA – Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation.
    • Suranga wells – a traditional water management method for human settlements & irrigation in which a horizontal tunnel dug in the slope of a laterite hill which makes use of earth's gravitational force to extract underground water.

    Thanks for reading!!!